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News

July 17, 2019

July ID Update

Sanford Guide ID Update features current developments in infectious diseases, curated by the Sanford Guide Editorial Board. Links marked with an asterisk (*) provide details to Web Edition subscribers, while all other links are universal. If you received this message from a colleague, subscribe now.
 

July 2019

New Antimicrobial Drug Approvals

  • Recarbrio (imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam), approved for patients ≥18 years of age who have limited or no alternative treatment options for complicated urinary tract infections (including pyelonephritis) and complicated intra-abdominal infections. Imipenem is a carbapenem, cilastatin is an inhibitor of renal dehydropeptidase, and relebactam is a beta-lactamase inhibitor. Recommended dosage, normal renal function: 1.25 gm (imipenem 500 mg, cilastatin 500 mg, relebactam 250 mg) IV q6h. Note that the cilastatin is included in the dosage of this product, unlike imipenem/cilastatin.

New or Updated Treatment Guidelines

  • Clinical practice guidelines for the management of chronic hepatitis B, from the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver (KASL) (Clin Mol Hepatol 25:93, 2019). These guidelines update the 2015 release and are available on the journal website.

Practice Pearls

  • We would not expect drug-drug interactions to be a significant issue with clotrimazole troches, given the poor oral absorption of clotrimazole from that formulation. However, a heart transplant patient receiving everolimus (a CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein substrate) for rejection prevention and clotrimazole troches 10 mg qid for thrush prophylaxis experienced a sharp drop in everolimus trough concentrations (8.4 to 2.5 ng/mL) following the discontinuation of clotrimazole (calculated oral clearance of everolimus increased from 6.0 to 11.2 L/hr). A similar phenomenon has been observed in patients treated with tacrolimus (also a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate) and clotrimazole troches, and it may have contributed to graft rejection. In another study, clotrimazole troches reduced the oral clearance of midazolam (a CYP3A4 substrate) without affecting systemic clearance. A plausible explanation is that clotrimazole achieves sufficient intestinal concentrations to inhibit presystemic clearance and thus enhance everolimus bioavailability (by inhibiting intestinal CYP3A4 and/or P-gp), but it achieves insufficient concentrations in the hepatic circulation to inhibit hepatic CYP3A4 and/or P-gp (Br J Clin Pharmacol 2019 June 26 [Epub ahead of print]).

Drug Shortages (US)

  • Antimicrobial drugs or vaccines in reduced supply or unavailable (as of July 1, 2019) due to increased demand, manufacturing delays, product discontinuation by a specific manufacturer, or unspecified reasons:
    • [New on the list since June 11]: None
    • [Shortage recently resolved]: Amphotericin B injection, Nelfinavir tablets
    • [Continue to be in reduced supply]:
      • Aminoglycosides: Amikacin injection, Gentamicin ophthalmic ointment (unavailable), Tobramycin injection
      • Carbapenems: Meropenem injection
      • Cephalosporins: Cefazolin injection, Cefepime injection, Cefotaxime injection (unavailable), Cefoxitin injection, Ceftazidime injection, Ceftriaxone injection, Cefuroxime injection
      • Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution, Ciprofloxacin oral suspension, Gemifloxacin tablets
      • Glyco-, glycolipo-, lipopeptides: Daptomycin injection, Vancomycin injection
      • Macrolides/azalides: Azithromycin injection, Azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% (unavailable), Erythromycin lactobionate injection (unavailable), Erythromycin 0.5% ophthalmic ointment
      • Penicillins: Ampicillin/sulbactam injection, Piperacillin/tazobactam injection
      • Tetracyclines: Doxycycline hyclate injection
      • Other antibacterials: Clindamycin injection, Metronidazole injection, Mupirocin calcium 2% cream, Mupirocin calcium 2% nasal ointment (unavailable), Nitrofurantoin oral suspension, Sulfanilamide 15% vaginal cream (unavailable)
      • Antifungal drugs: Clotrimazole 10 mg oral troches, Fluconazole injection, Nystatin oral suspension
      • Antiparasitic drugs: Pentamidine isethionate
      • Antiretroviral drugs: None
      • Antiviral drugs: Cidofovir injection (unavailable), Letermovir injection (unavailable), Valganciclovir oral powder for solution
      • Vaccines: Hepatitis A vaccine inactivated, Hepatitis B vaccine recombinant, Zoster vaccine recombinant (Shingrix), Yellow Fever vaccine (YF-VAX is unavailable, but Stamaril can be obtained through a limited number of clinics in the US. Click here).
  • Antimicrobial drugs newly discontinued: Quinidine gluconate IV (in December 2017). Product distribution will continue until expiration of current stock (March 2019).
    • Recent discontinuations: Terbinafine granules (in May 2017), MenHibrix (in February 2017), Elvitegravir (Vitekta, in December 2016), Peginterferon alfa-2b (in February 2016; 50 mcg vials still available in limited quantities), Boceprevir (in December 2015), Permethrin 1% topical lotion (in September 2015)
  • For detailed information including estimated resupply dates, see http://www.ashp.org/menu/DrugShortages
June 16, 2019

June ID Update

Sanford Guide ID Update features current developments in infectious diseases, curated by the Sanford Guide Editorial Board. Links marked with an asterisk (*) provide details to Web Edition subscribers, while all other links are universal. If you received this message from a colleague, subscribe now.
 

June 2019

CDC Health Advisory

  • CDC is expecting a 3 to 10 month nationwide shortage of Aplisol (Par Pharmaceuticals), one of two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin antigens that are licensed by the US FDA for use in performing tuberculin skin tests (TSTs). The time frame is the manufacturer's current estimate and is subject to change. Suggested approaches for dealing with the shortage include substituting IGRA blood tests for TSTs, using the other licensed product (Tubersol), and prioritizing allocation of TSTs in consultation with state and local public health authorities. Further information can be found on the CDC website.

Practice Pearls

  • Kounis syndrome, first described in 1991, is an unusual hypersensitivity reaction to various allergens, including drugs, that results in vasospasm of the coronary arteries. It is also known as allergic angina or allergic MI. There are three types. In type I, patients have normal coronary arteries, no predisposing factors, and no elevation in cardiac enzymes. Type II occurs in patients with inactive underlying coronary artery disease in whom the allergic episode results in vasospasm without cardiac enzyme elevation. Type III includes coronary artery stent thrombosis secondary to the allergic episode. Kounis syndrome manifests with signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia and is potentially life-threatening if not recognized promptly. Treatment begins with discontinuation of the causative agent, but there is no consensus as to the value of administering drugs that dilate the coronary arteries or suppress the allergic response. Many case reports of Kounis syndrome associated with beta-lactams, most commonlyamoxicillin, have been published. A recent report describing type I Kounis syndrome in a patient receiving a preoperative dose of vancomycin for surgical management of a gangrenous toe is only the second to implicate that drug (Am J Emerg Med 2019 June 3 [Epub ahead of print]).

New or Updated Treatment Guidelines

  • Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of CMV infection in patients following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and in patients receiving other types of therapy for hematological malignancies, from the 2017 European Conference on Infectious in Leukemia (ECIL 7) (Lancet Infect Dis 2019 May 29 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • 2019 guidelines for the management of tuberculosis in adults living with HIV, from the British HIV Association (HIV Med 20 Suppl 6: s2-s83, 2019). These guidelines update the 2011 version and are available on the journal website.
  • Guidelines from the French scientific societies for the biological diagnosis, treatment, persistent symptoms after documented or suspected Lyme borreliosis (Med Mal Infect 2019 May 30 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the pre- and post-transplant period, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 June 4 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Candida infections in solid organ transplant recipients, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 June 2 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of intestinal parasites in the pre- and post-transplant period, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 May 30 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in solid organ transplantation, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 May 23 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections in solid organ transplant recipients, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 May 18 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli in the pre- and post-transplant period, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 May 18 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the epidemiology and management of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in solid organ transplant recipients, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 May 11 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and management of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in the pre- and post-transplant period, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 May 11 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of Pneumocystis jiroveci fungal infection in solid organ transplant recipients, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 May 11 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of post-operative surgical site infectionsin solid organ transplantation, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 May 11 [Epub ahead of print]).

Drug Shortages (US)

  • Antimicrobial drugs or vaccines in reduced supply or unavailable (as of June 11, 2019) due to increased demand, manufacturing delays, product discontinuation by a specific manufacturer, or unspecified reasons:
    • [New on the list since May 4]: Sulfanilamide 15% vaginal cream 
    • [Shortage recently resolved]: Amphotericin B injection, Nelfinavir tablets
    • [Continue to be in reduced supply]:
      • Aminoglycosides: Amikacin injection, Gentamicin ophthalmic ointment (unavailable), Tobramycin injection
      • Carbapenems: Meropenem injection
      • Cephalosporins: Cefazolin injection, Cefepime injection, Cefotaxime injection (unavailable), Cefoxitin injection, Ceftazidime injection, Ceftriaxone injection, Cefuroxime injection
      • Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution, Ciprofloxacin oral suspension, Gemifloxacin tablets
      • Glyco-, glycolipo-, lipopeptides: Daptomycin injection, Vancomycin injection
      • Macrolides/azalides: Azithromycin injection, Azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% (unavailable), Erythromycin lactobionate injection (unavailable), Erythromycin 0.5% ophthalmic ointment
      • Penicillins: Ampicillin/sulbactam injection, Piperacillin/tazobactam injection
      • Tetracyclines: Doxycycline hyclate injection
      • Other antibacterials: Clindamycin injection, Metronidazole injection, Mupirocin calcium 2% cream, Mupirocin calcium 2% nasal ointment (unavailable), Nitrofurantoin oral suspension
      • Antifungal drugs: Clotrimazole 10 mg oral troches, Fluconazole injection, Nystatin oral suspension
      • Antiparasitic drugs: Pentamidine isethionate
      • Antiretroviral drugs: None
      • Antiviral drugs: Cidofovir injection (unavailable), Letermovir injection (unavailable), Valganciclovir oral powder for solution
      • Vaccines: Hepatitis A vaccine inactivated, Hepatitis B vaccine recombinant, Zoster vaccine recombinant (Shingrix), Yellow Fever vaccine (YF-VAX is unavailable, but Stamaril can be obtained through a limited number of clinics in the US. Click here).
  • Antimicrobial drugs newly discontinued: Quinidine gluconate IV (in December 2017). Product distribution will continue until expiration of current stock (March 2019).
    • Recent discontinuations: Terbinafine granules (in May 2017), MenHibrix (in February 2017), Elvitegravir (Vitekta, in December 2016), Peginterferon alfa-2b (in February 2016; 50 mcg vials still available in limited quantities), Boceprevir (in December 2015), Permethrin 1% topical lotion (in September 2015)
  • For detailed information including estimated resupply dates, see http://www.ashp.org/menu/DrugShortages
May 14, 2019

May ID Update

Sanford Guide ID Update features current developments in infectious diseases, curated by the Sanford Guide Editorial Board. Links marked with an asterisk (*) provide details to Web Edition subscribers, while all other links are universal. If you received this message from a colleague, subscribe now.
 

May 2019
 

New Print Editions Now Available

New Drug Approvals

  • Avaclyr (acyclovir* 3% ophthalmic ointment), approved for the treatment of acute herpetic keratitis (dendritic ulcers) in patients with HSV-1 and HSV-2. Recommended dosage: one ribbon of ointment in the lower cul-de-sac of the affected eye 5 times a day until ulcer has healed, then 3 times daily for 7 days. Product availability: 3.5 gm tubes.
  • Dengvaxia (Dengue Tetravalent Vaccine, Live), approved by the US FDA for the prevention of dengue disease caused by all dengue virus serotypes (1, 2, 3, and 4). There are major restrictions: the vaccine is approved only for use in individuals age 9-16 with laboratory-confirmed previous dengue infection and living in endemic areas. It is a live, attenuated vaccine that is administered as three separate injections six months apart. The vaccine has already been approved in 19 countries and the European Union.
  • Tolsura (itraconazole*), approved for the treatment of blastomycosis (pulmonary and extrapulmonary), histoplasmosis (including chronic cavitary pulmonary disease and disseminated, non-meningeal histoplasmosis), and aspergillosis (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) in patients who are intolerant of or who are refractory to amphotericin B*. This product is a new formulation with improved bioavailability. Availability: 65 mg capsules.

Updated Pediatric HIV Guidelines

  • Updated Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection from the HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of Children Living with HIV are available on the AIDSinfo website.

New or Updated Treatment Guidelines

  • Updated guidelines for the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and management of infection due to Arenaviruses and West Nile Virus (WNV) in the pre- and post-transplant period, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Apr 25 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus 1 (HTLV)-1 in the pre- and post-transplant period, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Apr 25 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the prevention and management of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Apr 19 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the vaccination of solid organ transplant candidates and recipients from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Apr 19 [Epub ahead of print]).

Practice Pearls

  • Eculizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to complement protein C5, inhibiting its cleavage to C5a and C5b and thereby inhibiting deployment of the terminal complement system. It is indicated for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis. Unfortunately, complement blockade at C5 interferes with the immune system’s ability to respond effectively to Neisseria infection. Therapy with eculizumab is thought to increase the risk of meningococcal disease 1000- to 2000-fold. The product labeling includes a black box warning about life-threatening and fatal infection due to N. meningitidis*, but infection due to other Neisseria species is less well characterized. The first case series of N. gonorrhoeae* infections in patients receiving eculizumab was recently published. Eight of nine cases of N. gonorrhoeae infection identified by an FDA spontaneous safety report search were disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). All eight DGI patients were hospitalized, seven were bacteremic, and two required pressor support (one of whom also required mechanical ventilation). The limited data suggest that patients treated with eculizumab may be at higher risk of DGI than the general population (Clin Infect Dis 2018 Nov 12 [Epub ahead of print]).

Drug Shortages (US)

  • Antimicrobial drugs or vaccines in reduced supply or unavailable (as of May 4, 2019) due to increased demand, manufacturing delays, product discontinuation by a specific manufacturer, or unspecified reasons:
    • [New on the list since April 21]: Doxycycline injection
    • [Shortage recently resolved]: Ciprofloxacin injection
    • [Continue to be in reduced supply]:
      • Aminoglycosides: Amikacin injection, Gentamicin ophthalmic ointment (unavailable), Tobramycin injection
      • Carbapenems: Meropenem injection
      • Cephalosporins: Cefazolin injection, Cefepime injection, Cefotaxime injection (unavailable), Cefoxitin injection, Ceftazidime injection, Ceftriaxone injection, Cefuroxime injection
      • Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution, Ciprofloxacin oral suspension, Gemifloxacin tablets
      • Glyco-, glycolipo-, lipopeptides: Daptomycin injection, Vancomycin injection
      • Macrolides/azalides: Azithromycin injection, Azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% (unavailable), Erythromycin lactobionate injection (unavailable), Erythromycin 0.5% ophthalmic ointment
      • Penicillins: Ampicillin/sulbactam injection, Piperacillin/tazobactam injection
      • Other antibacterials: Clindamycin injection, Metronidazole injection, Mupirocin calcium 2% cream, Mupirocin calcium 2% nasal ointment (unavailable), Nitrofurantoin oral suspension
      • Antifungal drugs: Amphotericin B injection (unavailable), Clotrimazole 10 mg oral troches, Fluconazole injection, Nystatin oral suspension (unavailable)
      • Antiparasitic drugs: Pentamidine isethionate
      • Antiretroviral drugs: Nelfinavir tablets
      • Antiviral drugs: Cidofovir injection (unavailable), Letermovir injection (unavailable), Valganciclovir oral powder for solution
      • Vaccines: Hepatitis A virus vaccine inactivated, Hepatitis B vaccine recombinant, Zoster vaccine recombinant (Shingrix), Yellow Fever vaccine (YF-VAX is unavailable, but Stamaril can be obtained through a limited number of clinics in the US. Click here).
  • Antimicrobial drugs newly discontinued: Quinidine gluconate IV (in December 2017). Product distribution will continue until expiration of current stock (March 2019).
    • Recent discontinuations: Terbinafine granules (in May 2017), MenHibrix (in February 2017), Elvitegravir (Vitekta, in December 2016), Peginterferon alfa-2b (in February 2016; 50 mcg vials still available in limited quantities), Boceprevir (in December 2015), Permethrin 1% topical lotion (in September 2015)
  • For detailed information including estimated resupply dates, see http://www.ashp.org/menu/DrugShortages
April 10, 2019

April ID Update

Sanford Guide ID Update features current developments in infectious diseases, curated by the Sanford Guide Editorial Board. Links marked with an asterisk (*) provide details to Web Edition subscribers, while all other links are universal. If you received this message from a colleague, subscribe now.
 

April 2019
 

Improved Sanford Guide Organization & Features

  • Web Edition* and mobile apps for Antimicrobial Therapy and Collection:
    • Activity Spectra tables may now be accessed from the main menu level on both the web edition and mobile app.
    • The Tables & Tools menu has been reorganized to correspond with the categories and structure found on drug pages.
    • new drug-drug interaction (DDI) table can be found in Tables & Tools under Drug Interactions.

New Drug Approvals

  • Dovato (dolutegravir 50 mg + lamivudine 300 mg), a two-drug fixed-dose regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults who are ARV treatment-naive with no known or suspected resistance mutations to DTG or 3TC. Recommended dosage: one tablet once daily, with or without food.

New or Updated Treatment Guidelines

  • Guidelines on the optimization of beta-lactam treatment in ICU patients from The French Society of Pharmacology and Therapeutics (SFPT) and the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine (SFAR) (Crit Care 23:104, 2019). The guidelines are available on the journal website.
  • Guidelines for empiric and targeted antimicrobial therapy of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) from the 2018 Lebanese Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (BMC Infect Dis 19:293, 2019). The guidelines are availalbe on the journal website.
  • Updated clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS in HIV-Infected Koreans from the Committee for Clinical Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HIV/AIDS of the Korean Society for AIDS (Infect Chemother 51:77, 2019). These guidelines update the 2015 version are are available on the journal website.
  • Clinical management guidelines for the management of acute appendicitis in adults from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 Mar 22 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis in the pre- and post-transplant period from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 29 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the management of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections in solid organ transplant candidates and recipients from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 26 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of diarrhea in the pre- and post-transplant period from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 26 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated clinical practice guidelines for the management of asymptomatic bacteriuria from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar 21 [Epub ahead of print]). These guidelines update the 2005 version and are available on the IDSA website.
  • Updated guidelines for the management of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in surgical patients from the World Society of Emergency Surgery (World J Emerg Surg 14:8, 2019). These guidelines update the 2015 version and are available on the journal website.
  • Position statement on the management of hepatitis C virus infection in patients with chronic kidney disease from a joint committee of the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF), Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI), Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Disease (SIMIT), and the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) (Infection 47:141, 2019).
  • Updated guidelines for the management of sepsis in neutropenic cancer patients from the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) and Intensive Care Working Party (iCHOP) of the German Society of Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO) (Ann Hematol 2019 Feb 22 [Epub ahead of print]). The guidelines update the 2013 version and are available on the journal website.
  • Guidelines for the treatment and management of women living with HIV in the UK during pregnancy and postpartum, and their infants, from the British HIV Association (HIV Med 20 Suppl 3:s2, 2019). The guidelines are available on the journal website.
  • Clinical practice guidelines for the provision, monitoring and support of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of
    HIV acquisition from the British HIV Association and the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (HIV Med 20 Suppl 2:s2, 2019). The guidelines are available on the journal website.
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of cryptococcosis in the pre- and post-transplant period from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 22 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus in solid organ transplant recipients from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 21 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of tissue and blood protozoal infections in the pre- and post-transplant period from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 21 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pneumonia in the post-transplant period from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 21 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of adenovirus infection after solid organ transplantation from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 12 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines on BK polyomavirus infection, replication, and disease from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 12 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of emerging fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 12 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of herpes simplex virus infection in the pre- and post-transplant period from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 12 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7, and HHV-8 in the pre- and post-transplant period from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Mar 7 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the screening, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cytomegalovirus in organ transplant recipients, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines on potential drug-drug interactions between anti-infectives and immunosuppressants, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of tuberculosis in the pre- and post-transplant period, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of Nocardia infections after solid organ transplantation, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of RNA respiratory viral infections in the pre- and post-transplant period, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]).

From CDC

  • Now that IV quinidine has been discontinued by the manufacturer and is no longer available, artesunate (the WHO-recommended first-line treatment) is now first-line treatment for severe malaria in the US. IV artesunate is neither FDA-approved nor commercially available in the US, but it has been available from CDC since 2007. For details on how to obtain IV artesunate and other FAQs a Malaria Notice has been posted.

Weekly Practice Pearls

  • In resource-limited countries, prolonged treatment courses of amphotericin B for infections such as cryptococcal meningitis in patients with HIV can be challenging to administer safely and effectively. In a phase 2 noninferiority trial conducted in Tanzania and Botswana, induction therapy with a single dose of liposomal amphotericin B (10 mg/kg) in combination with high-dose oral fluconazole (1200 mg daily for 2 weeks) was well tolerated and found to be noninferior to 2 weeks of once-daily liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg) plus oral fluconazole for the primary outcome measure of mean rate of fungal clearance from the CSF. This short-course treatment strategy is now being studied in a phase 3 clinical endoint trial (Clin Infect Dis 68:393, 2019).

Drug Shortages (US)

  • Antimicrobial drugs or vaccines in reduced supply or unavailable (as of April 7, 2019) due to increased demand, manufacturing delays, product discontinuation by a specific manufacturer, or unspecified reasons:
    • [New on the list since March 31]: None
    • [Shortage recently resolved]: Ciprofloxacin injection
    • [Continue to be in reduced supply]:
      • Aminoglycosides: Amikacin injection, Gentamicin ophthalmic ointment (unavailable), Tobramycin injection
      • Carbapenems: Meropenem injection
      • Cephalosporins: Cefazolin injection, Cefepime injection, Cefotaxime injection (unavailable), Cefoxitin injection, Ceftazidime injection, Ceftriaxone injection, Cefuroxime injection
      • Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution, Ciprofloxacin oral suspension, Gemifloxacin tablets
      • Glyco-, glycolipo-, lipopeptides: Daptomycin injection, Vancomycin injection
      • Macrolides/azalides: Azithromycin injection, Azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% (unavailable), Erythromycin lactobionate injection (unavailable), Erythromycin 0.5% ophthalmic ointment
      • Penicillins: Ampicillin/sulbactam injection, Piperacillin/tazobactam injection
      • Other antibacterials: Clindamycin injection, Metronidazole injection, Mupirocin calcium 2% cream, Mupirocin calcium 2% nasal ointment (unavailable), Nitrofurantoin oral suspension
      • Antifungal drugs: Amphotericin B injection (unavailable), Clotrimazole 10 mg oral troches, Fluconazole injection, Nystatin oral suspension (unavailable)
      • Antiparasitic drugs: Pentamidine isethionate
      • Antiretroviral drugs: Nelfinavir tablets (unavailable)
      • Antiviral drugs: Cidofovir injection (unavailable), Letermovir injection (unavailable), Valganciclovir oral powder for solution
      • Vaccines: Hepatitis A virus vaccine inactivated, Hepatitis B vaccine recombinant, Zoster vaccine recombinant (Shingrix), Yellow Fever vaccine (YF-VAX is unavailable, but Stamaril can be obtained through a limited number of clinics in the US. Click here).
  • Antimicrobial drugs newly discontinued: Quinidine gluconate IV (in December 2017). Product distribution will continue until expiration of current stock (March 2019).
    • Recent discontinuations: Terbinafine granules (in May 2017), MenHibrix (in February 2017), Elvitegravir (Vitekta, in December 2016), Peginterferon alfa-2b (in February 2016; 50 mcg vials still available in limited quantities), Boceprevir (in December 2015), Permethrin 1% topical lotion (in September 2015)
March 13, 2019

March ID Update

Sanford Guide ID Update features current developments in infectious diseases, curated by the Sanford Guide Editorial Board. Links marked with an asterisk (*) provide details to Web Edition subscribers, while all other links are universal. If you received this message from a colleague, subscribe now.
 

March 2019

New or Updated Treatment Guidelines

  • Updated guidelines for the screening, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cytomegalovirus in organ transplant recipients, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines on potential drug-drug interactions between anti-infectives and immunosuppressants, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of tuberculosis in the pre- and post-transplant period, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of Nocardia infections after solid organ transplantation, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of RNA respiratory viral infections in the pre- and post-transplant period, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]).
  • Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of viral hepatitis in the pre- and post-transplant period, from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation (Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print]).

Drug Shortages (US)

  • Antimicrobial drugs or vaccines in reduced supply or unavailable (as of March 2, 2019) due to increased demand, manufacturing delays, product discontinuation by a specific manufacturer, or unspecified reasons:
    • [New on the list since February 17]: Erythromycin 0.5% ophthalmic ointment
    • [Shortage recently resolved]: Ciprofloxacin injection
    • [Continue to be in reduced supply]:
      • Aminoglycosides: Amikacin injection, Gentamicin ophthalmic ointment (unavailable), Tobramycin injection
      • Carbapenems: Meropenem injection
      • Cephalosporins: Cefazolin injection, Cefepime injection, Cefotaxime injection (unavailable), Cefoxitin injection, Ceftazidime injection, Ceftriaxone injection, Cefuroxime injection
      • Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution, Ciprofloxacin oral suspension, Gemifloxacin tablets
      • Glyco-, glycolipo-, lipopeptides: Daptomycin injection, Vancomycin injection
      • Macrolides: Azithromycin injection, Azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% (unavailable), Erythromycin lactobionate injection (unavailable)
      • Penicillins: Ampicillin/sulbactam injection, Piperacillin/tazobactam injection
      • Other antibacterials: Clindamycin injection, Metronidazole injection, Mupirocin calcium 2% cream, Mupirocin calcium 2% nasal ointment (unavailable), Nitrofurantoin oral suspension
      • Antifungal drugs: Amphotericin B injection (unavailable), Fluconazole injection, Nystatin oral suspension (unavailable)
      • Antiparasitic drugs: Pentamidine isethionate
      • Antiviral drugs: Cidofovir injection (unavailable), Letermovir injection (unavailable), Valganciclovir oral powder for solution
      • Vaccines: Hepatitis A virus vaccine inactivated, Hepatitis B vaccine recombinant, Zoster vaccine recombinant (Shingrix), Yellow Fever vaccine (YF-VAX is unavailable, but Stamaril can be obtained through a limited number of clinics in the US. Click here).
  • Antimicrobial drugs newly discontinued: Quinidine gluconate IV (in December 2017). Product distribution will continue until expiration of current stock (March 2019).
    • Recent discontinuations: Terbinafine granules (in May 2017), MenHibrix (in February 2017), Elvitegravir (Vitekta, in December 2016), Peginterferon alfa-2b (in February 2016; 50 mcg vials still available in limited quantities), Boceprevir (in December 2015), Permethrin 1% topical lotion (in September 2015)