July ID Update

Sanford Guide ID Update features current developments in infectious diseases, curated by the Sanford Guide Editorial Board. Links marked with an asterisk (*) provide details to Web Edition subscribers, while all other links are universal. If you received this message from a colleague, subscribe now.
 

JULY 2020

SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19

  • Sanford Guide SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 material is freely available to all for the course of the pandemic.
  • Guidelines on COVID-19 diagnosis, treatment and management, and infection prevention: IDSA and NIH.

New Drug Approval

  • Fostemsavir (Rukobia), an HIV-1 attachment inhibitor, indicated (in combination with other antiretrovirals) for heavily treatment-experienced adults with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection failing their current ARV regimen due to resistance, intolerance, or safety considerations. Recommended dosage: one 600 mg extended-release tablet twice daily, with or without food.

Possible Remdesivir Drug Interaction

  • A critically ill COVID-19 patient developed liver toxicity five days after initiation of remdesivir therapy. Two days after beginning remdesivir he was also administered amiodarone for new onset atrial fibrillation, and he had recently received a five-day course of chloroquine (last dose nine days before beginning remdesivir). Remdesivir is a P-glycoprotein (PGP) substrate, and amiodarone and chloroquine inhibit PGP. PGP is an efflux transporter present in the intestine, liver, and kidney; in the liver it transports drug molecules from the hepatocyte into the bile for excretion. It is thus possible that this case of presumed remdesivir hepatotoxicity was fostered by a drug-drug interaction that raised hepatocellular concentrations of remdesivir above the toxicity threshold (Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 28 [Epub ahead of print]).

Dolutegravir Dispersible Tablets for Pediatric Patients

  • Dolutegravir* 5 mg tablets for oral solution (Tivicay PD) have been approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in pediatric patients (treatment-naive or -experienced but INSTI-naive) aged at least 4 weeks and weighing at least 3 kg. These tablets are not bioequivalent to the previously approved dolutegravir tablets and not interchangeable on a mg-per-mg basis.

New or Updated Treatment Guidelines

  • Guidelines on diagnostic procedures for suspected beta-lactam antibiotic hypersensitivity from the German and Austrian professional associations for allergology, and the Paul-Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy (Allergol Select 2020;4:11). The guidelines are available at PMC.
  • Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute otitis media in children (2018 update), from committee members of the Japan Otological Society, Japan Society for Infection and Aerosol in Otorhinolaryngology, and the Japan Society for Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology (Auris Nasus Larynx 2020 June 20;S0385-8146). The guidelines are available on the journal website.
  • Executive summary of clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, from the ATS, ERS, ESCMID, and IDSA (Clin Infect Dis 2020;Jul 6 [Epub ahead of print]). The summary is available on the journal website.

Drug Shortages (US)

  • Antimicrobial drugs or vaccines in reduced supply or unavailable (as of July 7, 2020) due to increased demand, manufacturing delays, product discontinuation by a specific manufacturer, or unspecified reasons:
    • New on the list since June 10Ceftazidime/avibactam injection
    • Shortage recently resolvedCefuroxime injection, Erythromycin 0.5% ophthalmic ointment, Gentamicin injection, Gentamicin 3% ophthalmic ointment
    • Antibacterial drugs in continued reduced supply:
      • Aminoglycosides: Amikacin injection, Tobramycin injection, Tobramycin lyophilized powder for injection
      • Carbapenems: Meropenem injection
      • Cephalosporins: Cefazolin injection, Cefepime injection, Cefotaxime injection (FDA is allowing temporary importation of product from SteriMax in Canada, in conjunction with Apollo Pharmaceuticals and its distributor FFF Enterprises. Click here for details), Cefoxitin injection, Ceftazidime injection
      • Clindamycin injection
      • Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution, Gemifloxacin tablets
      • Glycopeptides, glycolipopeptides, lipopeptides: Vancomycin injection
      • Macrolides/azalides: Azithromycin injection, Azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% (unavailable)
      • Methanamine hippurate tablets
      • Nitrofurantoin oral suspension
      • Nitroimidazoles: Metronidazole injection
      • Penicillins: Ampicillin/sulbactam injection, Piperacillin/tazobactam injection
      • Tetracyclines: Doxycycline injection
      • Topical (miscellaneous) antibacterials: Mupirocin calcium 2% cream, Mupirocin calcium 2% nasal ointment (unavailable), Neomycin and Polymyxin B sulfates GU irrigant, Neomycin and Polymyxin B sulfates and Dexamethasone ophthalmic ointment, Sulfacetamide 10%/Prednisolone 0.2% ophthalmic ointment (unavailable), Sulfanilamide 15% vaginal cream (unavailable)
    • Antimycobacterial drugs
      • Ethambutol tablets
    • Antifungal, antiparasitic, and antiviral drugs in continued reduced supply:
      • Antifungal drugs: Clotrimazole 10 mg oral troches, Fluconazole injection, Griseofulvin oral tablets and suspension
      • Antiparasitic drugs: Chloroquine tablets, Hydroxychloroquine tablets, Pentamidine isethionate
      • Antiviral drugs: Acyclovir injection, Cidofovir injection
    • Vaccines in coninued reduced supply:
      • Hepatitis B vaccine recombinant, Yellow Fever vaccine (YF-VAX is unavailable, but Stamaril can be obtained through a limited number of clinics in the US. Click here).
  • Antimicrobial drugs newly discontinued: 
    • Recent discontinuations: Bacitracin ophthalmic ointment (in June 2020), Bacitracin injection (in February 2020), Interferon alfa-2b (Intron A, in October 2019), Quinidine gluconate IV (in December 2017), Terbinafine granules (in May 2017), MenHibrix (in February 2017), Elvitegravir (Vitekta, in December 2016), Peginterferon alfa-2b (in February 2016; 50 mcg vials still available in limited quantities), Boceprevir (in December 2015), Permethrin 1% topical lotion (in September 2015).