May '23 Infectious Disease Update

Posted by Doug Black, PharmD., Ann Lloyd, PharmD on May 9th 2023

MAY 2023

Sanford Guide Mobile App Demo Webinar

  • We will be conducting a free 20-minute webinar to share tips and tricks for the Sanford Guide mobile app on May 18 at 3pm Eastern Time. Register here.


  • Sanford Guide SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 material is freely available to all for the course of the pandemic.
  • COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients: recommendations from NCCN here.
  • Currently authorized vaccines. See COVID-19 Prevention for table summarizing use and data.
  • ESCMID COVID-19 living guidelines: drug treatment and clinical management (Clin Microbiol Infect 2022;28:222). Available at PMC.
  • Guidelines on COVID-19 diagnosis, serology, treatment and management, and infection prevention: IDSA and NIH.
  • Living WHO guideline on drugs for COVID-19 (BMJ 2021;375:n2936).
  • Living WHO guideline on drugs to prevent COVID-19 (BMJ 2021;372:n526). Available here.
  • Living WHO guideline on prophylaxis against COVID-19 (BMJ 2021;373:n949). Available at PMC.
  • Management of hospitalized adults with COVID-19: a European Respiratory Society living guideline (Eur Respir J 2021;57(4):2100048). Available at PMC.

COVID Vaccine Summary

  • Latest recommendations from CDC (April 19, 2023 - normal host)(May 1, 2023 - immunocompromised) are that monovalent (original) mRNA vaccines are no longer recommended in the US.
  • Almost the entire US population has antibody against SARS-CoV-2 (via previous infection or vaccination).
  • All persons >6 years of age who are unvaccinated or previously completed a monovalent primary series should receive a bivalent mRNA vaccine. No further doses are needed except persons who are >65 years of age or immunocompromised.
  • A single additional bivalent vaccine dose for adults 65 years, and one or more additional doses for people who are immunocompromised, are recommended.
  • Immunocompromised persons age >12 years have the option to receive one additional dose of the Moderna (0.5 mL/50 µg) or Pfizer (0.3 mL/30 µg) vaccine ≥2 months following the last recommended bivalent dose. Further additional dose(s) may be administered, informed by clinical judgment and personal preference and circumstances ≥2 months after the last vaccine dose.
  • For young children, multiple doses continue to be recommended and vary by age, vaccine, and which vaccines were previously received. See Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine and Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine.

RSV Vaccine Approved

  • The US FDA has approved a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) adjuvanted vaccine (Arexvy) for use in individuals 60 years of age and older. Dosage is a single 0.5 mL IM injection. The vaccine will not be released until fall. See FDA news release here.

Antimicrobial Stewardship Pearl 

Antibiotic Prescribing in Nursing Homes
  • longitudinal retrospective cohort study involving over 1 million long-term nursing home residents revealed that 66.2% received at least one antibiotic prescription during their stay.  Levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were the most prescribed antibiotics while fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides and related agents, and first-generation cephalosporins were the most commonly prescribed classes. Nitrofurantoin had the highest rate of antibiotic days of therapy (DOTs). The study described estimates of prevalence of antibiotic prescribing, rate of prescribing, and rate of DOTs all of which may be used to guide antibiotic stewardship program activities. J Infect Dis. 2023 Apr 5;jiad087.
  • Other resources that may be helpful for developing or expanding stewardship programs in nursing homes include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Core Elements of Antibiotic Stewardship for Nursing Homes and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Nursing Home Antimicrobial Stewardship Guide.

Drug Shortages (US)

  • Antimicrobial drugs or vaccines in reduced supply or unavailable (as of May 5, 2023) due to increased demand, manufacturing delays, product discontinuation by a specific manufacturer, or unspecified reasons: 
    • New shortages since April 8, 2023:
      • None
    • Shortage recently resolved:
      • Rifampin injection
      • Rifapentine 150 mg tablets
    • Antibacterial drugs:
      • Aminoglycosides:
        • Amikacin injection
        • Gentamicin injection
        • Neomycin tablets
        • Tobramycin injection
      • Bacitracin ophthalmic ointment (unavailable)
      • Carbapenems:
        • Meropenem injection
      • Cephalosporins:
        • Cefazolin injection
        • Cefixime 400 mg capsules
        • Cefotaxime injection (FDA is allowing temporary importation of product from SteriMax in Canada, in conjunction with Provepharm Life Solutions and its distributor Direct Success. Click here for details),
      • Clindamycin injection
      • Doxycycline oral suspension
      • Fluoroquinolones:
        • Ciprofloxacin injection
        • Ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution
        • Ofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution
      • Glycopeptides, glycolipopeptides, lipopeptides:
        • Vancomycin injection
      • Macrolides/azalides:
        • Azithromycin injection
        • Azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% (unavailable)
        • Erythromycin 0.5% ophthalmic ointment
      • Metronidazole injection
      • Nitrofurantoin oral suspension
      • Penicillins:
        • Amoxicillin (all oral formulations)
        • Amoxicillin-clavulanate (all oral formulations)
        • Dicloxacillin capsules (250 mg, 500 mg)
        • Penicillin G benzathine injection
        • Penicillin G benzathine/Penicillin G procaine (Bicillin)
        • Piperacillin-tazobactam injection
      • Polymyxin B sulfate/Trimethoprim sulfate ophthalmic solution
      • Rifaximin 200 mg tablets
      • Sulfacetamide 10%/Prednisolone 0.2% ophthalmic ointment (unavailable)
      • Sulfanilamide 15% vaginal cream (unavailable)
    • Antifungal drugs
      • Amphotericin B injection
      • Amphotericin B Lipid Complex (ABLC)
      • Clotrimazole 10 mg oral troches
    • Antimycobacterial drugs
      • Isoniazid 300 mg tablets
      • Rifampin capsules
    • Antiparasitic drugs:
      • Primaquine
    • Antiviral drugs: 
      • Oseltamivir capsules, powder for oral suspension
      • Valganciclovir tablets, powder for oral solution
    • Vaccines:
      • None
  • Antimicrobial drugs recently discontinued: 
    • Ritonavir oral solution 80 mg/mL (January 2023)
    • Lindane 1% shampoo (discontinued by Wockhardt USA in June 2022, no other supplier)
    • Quinupristin-Dalfopristin (discontinued by Pfizer in early 2022, no other supplier)
    • Gemifloxacin 320 mg tablet (August 2022, no further US distribution)
    • Gentamicin sulfate 0.3% ophthalmic ointment (July 2022)
    • Mupirocin calcium 2% cream (Bactroban [GSK], June 2020)
    • Bacitracin injection (February 2020)
    • Interferon alfa-2b (Intron A, October 2019)
    • Mupirocin calcium 2% nasal ointment (Bactroban Nasal [GSK], August 2019)